About the Creation of Israel, we would need a full encyclopedia or many websites. So I will try to summarize the most important events. Here I am going to concentrate on the events from the First Aliyah, the immigration mainly from Russia at the end of the 19th Century to the United Nations decision on the partition of Palestine into two states one Jewish and one Arab.
Jews arriving Eretz Israel on the First Aliyah
The Rebirth of Israel
From the end of the 1800’s Jews begun a mass immigration into Palestine, mainly from Russia. It was called the First Aliyah. I want to mention that the name Palestine is a European invention from the time of the Romans. There was never a Palestine country in the area and since the Jews had their homeland more than 2000 years ago, no other nation ever had a country in the area.
After World War I with the defeat of Germany and their Ottoman supporters, the area of Palestine, what is today Jordan and Israel was assigned to the British Mandate, the same as Syria and Lebanon were assigned to France.
The Jewish immigration’s main purpose was to dry the land of swamps and prepare it for the future rebirth of a Jewish Homeland. This immigration brought some progress to the Land that attracted many Arabs from neighboring countries to the area, looking for better work and health conditions. At that point the British saw with good eyes the creation of a National Homeland for the Jews in Palestine.
Theodor Herzl the Father of the Homeland
Theodore Herzl, called Hoze Hamedina or the Visionary of the State is the number one leader of the Zionist Movement. At the end of the 1800’s being a press correspondent in Paris he witnessed the injustice of the Dreyfus affair and he began to believe that the only way to mitigate anti-Semitism is to create a Jewish Homeland and wrote:
“The Jewish question persists wherever Jews live in appreciable numbers. Wherever it does not exist, it is brought in together with Jewish immigrants. We are naturally drawn into those places where we are not persecuted, and our appearance there gives rise to persecution.
This is the case, and will inevitably be so, everywhere, even in highly civilized countries—see, for instance, France—so long as the Jewish question is not solved on the political level. The unfortunate Jews are now carrying the seeds of anti-Semitism into England; they have already introduced it into America”.
Creation of Israel
Balfour Declaration of 1917 changed the whole History
During those years of the beginning of the 1900’s Jews kept arriving into the shores of Palestine, this time on the Second Aliya and kept building and creating the terrain for a Jewish State. In 1917 British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour declared:
"His Majesty's government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country”.
Creation of Israel
British Mandate for Palestine
1923 – 1947
After British takeover of Palestine, they divided the area into two separate entities: 75% of what was supposed to be the Jewish Homeland was assigned to be an Arab Palestinian Homeland on the East Bank of the Jordan River, that later became the Kingdom of Jordan, and the remaining 25% of the land to the west of the Jordan River was to be the Jewish the Jewish Palestinian Homeland.
The Arabs never accepted the existence of the Jews in the land and began a constant fight to “Rid Palestine from Jews and throw them into the Sea”. The British closed their eyes to the situation because at that time with the finding of oil in the Arab lands, they wanted to be seen with good eyes by the Arabs.
It was clear from the very first moment that the Jews in Palestine had to defend themselves from the Arabs and at the same time trying to get rid of the British.
Creation of Israel
Paula and David Ben Gurion with members of the Haganah
Hagana and Irgun
The Hagana was formed as an organized defense that was later the seed for the israel Defense Forces. And also an underground Jewish group lead by Menachem Begin (later in the 1970’s became Israel Prime Minister).
The British had their hands full and turned the case to the United Nations, an organization recently found from the formed League of Nations.
Creation of Israel
United Nations Partition Plan of November 29, 1947
United Nations Resolution
On November 29, 1947 the United Nations issued a resolution recommending the Partition of Palestine into a Jewish and Arab State with the exception of the Jerusalem Bethlehem area that will remain under international surveillance.
There was joy in the Jewish World, people danced on the streets of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and New York, but the joy was too short. The neighboring Arab countries rejected the resolution and kept fighting to “throw the Jews to the Sea”.
The British accepted the plan and tired of a fighting they considered not theirs, declared that the Mandate over Palestine will cease on May 15, 1948.
On May 14, 1948 the Palestinian Jews through the words of its leader David Ben Gurion declared Independence and the State of Israel was born.
“We members of the people’s council, representatives of the Jewish community of Eretz Israel and the Zionist Movement, are here assembled on the day of the termination of the British Mandate over Eretz Israel, by virtue of our historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, hereby declare the establishment of a Jewish State in Erez Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.”
Copyright Tuchman Israel Guide
2015 - 2019